A building with mini heat pumps installed in windows
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Sustainable warmth for all

Efficiency Meets Comfort: The Impact of Heat Pumps in NYC's Affordable Housing

Daren Wang
January 4, 2024

When Hurricane Ida hit the New York City area in 2021, the basement of Woodside Houses, a New York Central Housing Authority (NYCHA) apartment building in Queens, flooded, shutting down the aging boiler that had been supplying heat to the four-building complex. And although the NYCHA has spent over $1.4 million to repair the equipment, tenants continue to complain about inconsistent heat from the aging system. But in apartment 1D, the future has arrived. Here, a window heat pump has replaced the traditional radiator, marking the inception of an initiative that aims to redefine the landscape of home heating in New York City's public housing system.

Motivations Behind the Transition

Fueled by a substantial multi-million-dollar investment from the state, this new heat pump is marked by its simplicity. Developed collaboratively by industry leaders Midea and Gradient, this new solution rests on a sill and plugs into a wall, looking very much like a conventional window AC unit. But it brings a big difference—it also heats the apartment efficiently.

At the heart of New York State's commitment to combating climate change lies the purchase of 30,000 of these window heat pumps for public housing. Beyond the immediate advantages of enhancing energy efficiency and curbing utility costs, the initiative aims to address a crucial aspect of resident well-being — providing air conditioning access to those who were previously without it while leapfrogging the decrepit boiler unit in the building’s basement.

Advantages of Window Heat Pumps

The advantages of transitioning to these electric heat pumps extend beyond leaving the unreliable system behind. These units, able to run on clean electricity instead of fossil fuels, make them much more sustainable, especially as New York aggressively pursues more renewable energy from its power providers. By reducing reliance on traditional heating systems that contribute to greenhouse gas emissions, these pumps play a crucial role in achieving the ambitious targets set by New York State to slash emissions by 85 percent by 2050.

One of the significant advantages of electric heat pumps is their dual functionality. Not only can they efficiently heat homes during the winter, but they can also cool them during the summer. This adds versatility to the system, providing year-round comfort to residents. With New York suffering through increased heat waves in recent years, NYCHA has become increasingly focused on helping residents stay comfortable in their own homes.

Skepticism and Resident Concerns

Even as the new units promise to improve their quality of life, some of the public housing residents continue to express skepticism. This doubt is not unwarranted. The history of public housing upgrades under the NYCHA often involves promises that are later botched or abandoned. The residents, who have borne the brunt of that mismanagement, are understandably cautious about embracing a new technological frontier without assurances of safety, affordability, and reliability.

NYCHA's Commitment and Challenges

But NYCHA claims that this time will be different, and its commitment to this initiative is evident in its substantial investment and the strategic placement of the first batch of 36 Midea heat pumps in the building. As part of this trial, the agency has pledged more transparency and assured residents that their voices will be heard throughout the process.

NYCHA currently pays for residents' heating and electricity in most of its buildings, and the agency asserts that this financial support will continue. However, decisions regarding air conditioning costs remain pending. The unresolved issue of AC costs brings to light broader challenges associated with equitable transitions — concerns about shifting costs to tenants, especially when it comes to essential services like air conditioning.

If the trial goes well, they’ll begin a much bigger rollout, addressing the larger goal of deploying 156,000 units over the next decade.

However, the logistical intricacies of a vast implementation in a city with a history of housing mismanagement pose a considerable challenge. The transition to heat pumps represents more than a mere technological shift; it's a microcosm of the hurdles cities may face in implementing climate solutions while prioritizing the well-being of the most affected residents.

The Transition's Impact on Low-Income Residents

The introduction of window heat pumps to low-income residents before affluent households is a deliberate strategy aimed at reversing the historical trend where only the more prosperous could afford the latest advancements in clean energy. NYCHA's endeavor to ensure that some of the lowest-income residents in the city experience the newest technology signifies a commitment to equity in the adoption of clean energy solutions.

In addition to energy efficiency benefits, the initiative presents an opportunity for residents to lead in an area traditionally dominated by more affluent demographics. Justin Driscoll, President and CEO of New York Power Authority, told The Verge, "The beauty of this project is that some of the lowest-income residents in the city are experiencing the newest technology for the first time, so they’re leading in this area, which is really nice and something that we’re very proud of."

Technology in Action: The Trial Run

As winter approaches, the 36 Midea heat pumps at Woodside Houses are going to be under heavy scrutiny. Residents will closely monitor their performance, providing insights into energy consumption and the regulation of indoor temperatures.

The trial is not without its challenges. Questions regarding the safety of the new technology and the timely handling of work orders for repairs linger. Residents are understandably nervous, with concerns ranging from the impact on health to the potential inconvenience caused by damages or malfunctions.

NYCHA's ongoing efforts to address these concerns, coupled with a commitment to transparency and engagement with residents, are crucial in building trust and ensuring the success of the new technology.

NYCHA's Oversight and the Path Forward

NYCHA, under federal monitoring since 2019, faces the added scrutiny of its ability to manage this transition. The agency has been tasked with replacing aging boilers like the one in Woodside Houses’ basement, and the shift to individual heat pumps is viewed as a potential solution to avoid a widespread loss of heating across entire buildings in case of a boiler failure.

The successful integration of heat pumps into NYCHA's extensive property portfolio, consisting of more than 177,000 apartments, holds the potential to influence the broader landscape of residential heating in New York City. If successful, expect to see the solution rolled into other subsidized housing programs throughout the nation.

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